tomato production areas in south africa
However, very limited information on ToCV is available from African countries [12; 13]. ORF-1 (nucleotides 238–339) encodes a 4 kDa protein that may function as a transmembrane protein because of the large hydrophobic domain . Further studies are required to determine the transmission efficiency of ToCV from infected S. nigrum and D. stramonium hosts to cultivated tomato varieties in South Africa. While they are produced throughout South Africa, the bulk of production takes place in the Western Cape. Although very widely distributed, these symptoms were concentrated in the northern, northwestern and central parts of South Africa where whitefly infestations of tomato crops were observed to be significantly higher. Symptoms including interveinal leaf chlorosis, chlorotic flecking, and leaf bronzing that are typically associated with crinivirus infections were observed on tomato crops growing in fields and greenhouses located on commercial, smallholder, or subsistence farms (Fig 2). Against this background, a follow-up study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of criniviruses infecting tomato crops in South Africa. In recent years, South Africa has experienced increasingly high whitefly populations that overwhelmed much of the country’s commercial and smallholder tomato farming communities . The 8242 nt RNA-2 molecule comprised of a 237 nt 5ʹ leader sequence, nine ORFs and a 214 nt 3ʹ untranslated region (Fig 4). Tomato production in this country accounts to 38 percent of all vegetable production in turkey and has about 25,000 acres in greenhouses.70% of turkey tomatoes are consumed locally while 30% is processed. This will provide further insight into the impact of these weed species as reservoirs of ToCV in South Africa’s tomato industry. The growing demand for derived products, such as fruit juice and jams and increase in consumer awareness towards healthier alternatives such as fruits and vegetables are some of the factors driving the market growth. However, no conclusive recombinant events were detected following the in-silico analysis of these RNA molecules using recombination detection program (RDP 4) . endstream endobj 36 0 obj <> endobj 37 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>> endobj 39 0 obj <> endobj 40 0 obj <> endobj 41 0 obj <> endobj 42 0 obj <>stream Funding: Our research was funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa (https://www.nrf.ac.za). In this study, mixed whitefly populations belonging to the genera Bemisia and Trialeurodes were identified in open field and greenhouse-produced tomatoes that tested positive for ToCV infection. To achieve this production, almost 5 million hectares were used. The 59 kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) encoded by ORF-1b (nucleotides 6212–7657) is likely expressed as a result of a +1 ribosomal frameshift at the end of ORF-1a; a common strategy among members of the Closteroviridae family . In some cases, it may simply be a nutrient deficiency or some abiotic stress. The removal of alternative sources of inoculum such as weeds, crop residues, and volunteer plants prior to planting is also recommended to reduce primary spread of ToCV. ORF-1a (5838 nt/1945 aa) located at position 304 to 6141 encodes a 221 kDa multifunctional protein comprising a protease, methyltransferase and helicase domain. Validation, Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. More than 50 years ago Duffus , first reported a crinivirus infecting greenhouse cultivated cucurbits in California, since then, their emergence in field and greenhouse vegetable crop production has negatively impacted multi-million-dollar agricultural industries throughout the world [2; 4]. Dec 14, 2020 ~ Dec 21, 2020-4.4%. Results from the survey indicated that ToCV is presently the only crinivirus species infecting tomatoes in South Africa. Methodology, Modern technologies have increased 35.75% tomato production just in 10 years. This is a list of countries by tomato production in 2016 and 2017, based on data from the â¦ B: Typical crinivirus ‘hair-like’ particles submerged in cellular debris from a crude tomato leaf extract. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.g005.  reported the emergence and spread of ToCV by a highly effective Bemisia tabaci (MED, formerly biotype Q) in Europe. %%EOF Importantly, these weeds are distributed throughout much of South Africa and may have significantly contributed to the epidemiology of ToCV. Table 4 shows a detailed comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid similarity profiles of coding and non-coding regions of ToCR1-186 and the fully sequenced RNA-1 segment of nineteen ToCV isolates that have been reported from various locations around the world. Sequences were analyzed using the BLAST tool in MEGA 6 software . Accepted 31 August, 2010 Yes ORF-8 (nucleotides 7124–7822) encodes a 27 kDa (P27) protein that is conserved among members of the Crinivirus genus, however, the amino acid similarity among species is low . Yes Conditions for PCR were 95°C for 2 min followed by 35 cycles of 95°C for 25 s; 52°C for 30 s and 72°C for 25 s following a final elongation of 72°C for 10 min. Inconsistencies in the grouping of the RNA-1 and RNA-2 segments belonging to the same ToCV isolate suggest the possibility of intraspecific genetic acquisition through reassortment and recombination. Approximately 6000 hectares of land are used to grow tomatoes in South Africa during the summer months but production is limited to frost-free areas and greenhouses during winter. The motivation for selecting Limpopo in this study lies in the 66% tomato contribution to the tomato industry in South Africa. Limpopo province is the major production area with 3 590 ha (Northern Lowveld at 2 700 ha and far Northern areas of Limpopo at 890 ha). The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) listed ToCV as a quarantined pathogen in some parts of the world . The isolate of ToCV previously reported from South Africa (Nel-186Cr; Accession no. The Aztecs of South America used the fruit in their dishes as per evidence. Tomato chlorosis crinivirus (ToCV) is vectored by several whitefly species that damage tomato crops throughout the world. Tomato varieties/cultivars used in South Africa include Florodade, Heinz 1370, Karino, Rodade, Fortress, Hytec, Star 9001, Star 9003, Star 9009, Sundance, Zeal, Baldo, Blockbuster, Disco, P 747, Shirley, HTX 14, Legato, Roma VF, Rossol, Star 9056F, Sun 6216 and UC 82B, Bamby, Josephine, Atletico, Daniella and Gabriella. D: The occurrence of weeds such as Datura stramonium growing along rows of tomato crops exhibiting interveinal leaf chlorosis and stunting in the presence of whiteflies. In addition, all eight motifs, consistent with findings of Koonin  were identified. A copper formvar-coated grid was subsequently inverted onto the droplet for 5 min and negatively stained with a 3% potassium phosphotungstate solution for 1 min in the absence of light. 57 0 obj <>stream Criniviruses are exclusively transmitted by whiteflies belonging to the genera Bemisia and Trialeurodes in a semi-persistent manner . Conversely, chemical control is considered somewhat inefficient since whitefly vectors can still transmit viruses before being poisoned with pesticides. Of the 2,101 contigs, 68 contigs were similar to known viral sequences. Apart from anthropogenic activity and farming practices that directly influence the density and diversity of insect pest populations, climate change variability is an integral element that many farmers and scientists have only recently recognized. 0000007304 00000 n In addition to screening for crinivirus infection, a visual inspection of other known whitefly-transmitted viruses including torradoviruses, ipomoviruses, carlaviruses, and begomoviruses was carried out. 0000001417 00000 n Open field production account for 95% while greenhouse technology accounts for 5% of the total tomato production (Seminis, 2007). Cape Town has a Mediterranean climate and Most of these symptoms developed in the mid to lower parts of tomato crops, and gradually progressed toward the apex as the plant matured. 0 Yes KT989862) on D. stramonium , was predominant among tomato crops and some arable weed species. According to the data provided by FAOSTAT world has produced 182,301,395 tons tomatoes in 2017. History Of Tomato Cultivation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Tomato has been consumed since the ancient times. Similarly, ToCR2-186 did not cluster with any of the isolates and formed a unique clade. A higher level of consistency was observed in the non-coding regions of RNA-2 (Table 5) than in RNA-1 (Table 4). 0000002198 00000 n Explore detailed information about the global Tomato markets. All subsequent aligned ToCV sequences analyzed in this study matched ≥ 99% to Nel-186Cr. Bemisia sp. You can discover details including top producing & exporting countries, real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes, and more. H��TMO�0��W�ieK��qlqZ��T�R#.h��%�4Am More importantly, stringent policies on the trade and movement of plant material across borders, together with a strategic management approach can significantly reduce the economic impact of ToCV infections throughout the world.  demonstrated the importance of primary spread in the epidemiology of ToCV on tomato crops, and how the spatial dynamics of the disease can be contained via intervention. Is the Subject Area "Tomatoes" applicable to this article? In South West Nigeria, tomatoes are usually expensive during the rainy season. An intensive breeding programme has since produced the wide range of tomato cultivars available throughout the world today. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.g003. Despite ranking 35thin the world based on total tonnage in 2011, South Africa remains a major regional tomato producer in Sub-Saharan Africa (Figure A total of 127,654 contigs were generated from the de novo metaSPAdes assembly. Visualization, Plant out in late spring, when the weather is settled and warm. Insecticide treatment to control vector populations must be used sparingly and rotated with different active ingredients (AI’s) to minimize treadmill effects. Yes Wholesale Price Change. Navas-Castillo et al. Although multiplex RT-PCR assays were carried out to determine the presence of four crinivirus species (i.e. Furthermore, they provided detailed information outlining the spread and severity of the disease in various countries and continents in which South Africa was mentioned although no official studies have been conducted to date. No, Is the Subject Area "South Africa" applicable to this article? e0220298. Supervision, Our results showed that only Tomato chlorosis crinivirus (ToCV) was identified from leaf tissue samples collected during this survey (Table 3). Both weed species belong to the Solanaceae family and can be found throughout much of South Africa. originated in the Andes mountains of Peru, from where it spread as a weed to extensive areas in South and Central America. Kenya is among the Africaâs leading producer of tomato and is ranked 6th in Africa with a total production of Although tomato cultivation is concentrated in the Limpopo, Mpumalanga (Lowveld and Highveld), Northern KwaZulu Natal, Eastern Cape, and Western Cape provinces, all nine provinces were surveyed which included commercial, smallholder, and subsistence farms (Fig 1 and Table 1). Tomatoes are produced in all South African provinces, but Limpopo province with its warm climate is best suited for production of tomatoes. Conditions for RT were 42°C for 1 h and 85°C for 10 min (enzyme inactivation). A final elution of ≤ 30 μl was obtained and quantified using a nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). Copyright: © 2019 Moodley et al. Yes In addition, it is almost impossible to control the spread of a virus without a profound understanding of its molecular genetics and factors that influence its virulence and distribution. Trialeurodes abutilonea and Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1, formerly biotype B) are highly effective vectors in comparison to Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (New World, formerly biotype A) . Other locations within the state that have dams are also relevant tomato production areas namely Makoda, Dambatta, Kunci, Kabo, Gwarzo, Kabo, Kumbotso, Madobi, Kibiya, Karaye, Rogo, Minjibir, and Garko local government areas. No, Is the Subject Area "Nucleotides" applicable to this article? 35 0 obj <> endobj D. stramonium was the major weed species harboring ToCV in the northern (Limpopo, Gauteng) and the southeastern (Eastern Cape) parts of the country. Five positive amplicons were excised from the agarose gel, purified using a Zymoclean Gel DNA Recovery Kit (Zymo Research, USA) and ligated onto a PCR 2.1 cloning vector. 0000001130 00000 n As surveyed by the Hortgro Tree Census, the Klein Karoo accounted for more than 75% of the area under production in 2018. Xg�( A: Interveinal leaf chlorosis, chlorotic flecking, and leaf bronzing symptoms on the lower mature leaves of tomato crops. In addition, ToCV was identified on two solanaceous weed species growing alongside tomato crops (Table 3). The use of high-throughput sequencing was a rapid and effective method to generate the full genome sequence of ToCV from South Africa. Interestingly, the RNA-2 segment from South Africa (ToCR2-186; Accession no. Parasitic wasps belonging to the species Encarsia formosa can be used to effectively control vector populations in greenhouse cultivated tomato crops. Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV), Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV) and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV) may produce similar or indistinguishable symptoms on tomato crops. Tomato is one of the major vegetable crops grown in the country. startxref Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The complete sequence of ToCV from South Africa was elucidated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). For these reasons, a multiplex RT-PCR approach was used to detect single or mixed infections of crinivirus species that commonly infect solanaceous hosts. Resources, Tzanetakis et al. Additionally, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) crops were also screened for crinivirus infection, especially those in adjacent tomato farms, however, criniviruses were not detected on any of the samples from South Africa. Sequence analysis of the 265 bp region located on the ORF-1b gene revealed a high level of similarity among all six ToCV isolates analyzed in this study with Nel-186Cr (KT989862) previously reported on D. stramonium in South Africa . Frost areas: sow under cover 6 weeks before last spring frost. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed filamentous ‘hair-like’ virus particles approximately 800–900 nm in length and 10–12 nm wide (Fig 3), typically associated with members of the Closteroviridae family [1; 22]. Data curation, This also suggests a possible connection between Spanish and some South Korean isolates, specifically JJ. According to the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), In 2018 the total tomato production in the country is reported to be 20.77 million tons as compared to its production of 20.67 million tons in 2016.Among fresh tomatoes, Florida, Heinz 1370, Karino, and Rodade are the popular cultivars. Samples were placed on dry ice and transported to the University of KwaZulu Natal virology lab for further analysis. The low nucleotide sequence variability among ToCV isolates infecting weeds and tomato crops in South Africa raises concerns about the epidemiology of the virus and suggests that ToCV isolates identified on some weed species are likely to be the same as those infecting nearby tomato crops. Both ToCV positive weed species D. stramonium and S. nigrum were symptomatic. Limpopo Province is the major production area with 3 590 ha (Northern Lowveld at 2 700 ha and far Northern areas of Limpopo at 890 ha). In addition, the onset of early senescence was observed. 0000003328 00000 n The production of tomato is growing dramatically in the world as like its consumption. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.t002. The non-enveloped filamentous particles usually have two modal lengths (650–850 and 700–900 nm) and a diameter of 10–13 nm . �$�X���C���PM�h^��,ꠐz疍��2�|�3�#B�r�6:AC�$YQN`�Hsli(�*�Va֍Qn�#K��YR�*�St�. PCR positive samples were validated by cloning (using a TA cloning kit [Invitrogen, USA] according to the manufacturers’ guidelines) and sequencing. No, Is the Subject Area "Weeds" applicable to this article? Horticulture products are produced throughout the entire country, however the three main regions are around Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban. Your efforts are highly appreciated. Conceptualization, Interestingly, the P4 protein encoded by ORF-1 from ToCR2-186 had the lowest amino acid similarity to the South Korean isolate JJ (Table 5). Knowledge of abiotic factors that contribute to pest and disease outbreaks is fundamental to the development of climate models that project the risks associated with epidemics. RNA templates were incubated at 65°C for 5 min and placed on ice prior to the addition of a master mix component as indicated by the manufacturer. %PDF-1.4 %���� Phylogenetic analysis (Figs 5 and 6) shows that the RNA-1 segment (ToCR1-186) groups most closely with Spanish isolates, however, the RNA-2 (ToCR2-186) diverges from and shows the highest identity with South Korean isolate JJ which ultimately group with Spanish isolates. Lozano et al. Macedo et al. were observed in most greenhouses and sampling sites located in the North-West province. Citation: Moodley V, Gubba A, Mafongoya PL (2019) Prevalence, epidemiology and molecular studies of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in South Africa. Optimizing the use of cultural and biological control measures will ultimately lead to a decrease in pesticide applications and may have positive outcomes on the long-term sustainability of whitefly population control and virus management. Since epidemics and emerging disease are strongly influenced by the density and diversity of vector populations (especially with viral pathogens such as ToCV that are not mechanically or seed transmissible), a greater understanding of what influences vector dynamics is required. Recently, Moodley et al. All samples were sequenced in the forward and reverse direction at Inqaba Biotec (Pretoria, South Africa) using a 3500xL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA). Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of the ToCV genome is described. South Africa offered its own economic stimulus package which includes tax relief measures, the South African Future Trust (SAFT), Debt Relief Finance Scheme, Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Covid-19 Essential Supplies Intervention and Training Layoff Scheme. A: An arrowhead structure resembling a virion tale (VT). Only 2,101 contigs were not aligned to the Solanum genomes. ToCV was not identified from any of the asymptomatic weed samples that were infested with whiteflies. The establishment of the exotic Mediterranean whitefly biotypes Q (MED) and B (MEAM1) in South Africa may have displaced indigenous species by means of fitness and resistance to broad-spectrum pesticides that indirectly killed off natural enemies . 0000009023 00000 n Pest phenology models may be an effective way to reduce vector populations and pesticide applications when coupled with cultural, chemical, and biological practices. Tomato is grown either on open field or under greenhouse technology. Explore detailed information about South Africa's Tomato market. The overnight cultures were concentrated by centrifugation, and the recombinant plasmids were purified using a Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit (Zymo Research, USA). To determine the possibility of infection by all known criniviruses, a multiplex system targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) encoded by the ORF-1b gene was used . Notes The relationship between tomato production, monthly average temperature and seasonal average temperature in Limpopo province, South Africa during the period of 1971 - 2006 were investigated using statistical regression analysis methods. A sterile scalpel was used to make an incision along the midrib of a fresh symptomatic leaf tissue sample. Contigs that matched to ToCV RNA-1 and RNA-2 sequences as per NCBI GenBank, ranged from 98% to 99%.  indicate that the management of ToCV is primarily by chemical and cultural methods. Field observations showed that interveinal leaf chlorosis, chlorotic flecking, and leaf bronzing symptoms typically associated with crinivirus infection of tomatoes [10; 21] occurred more frequently amongst growers in South Africa  (Fig 2). Potato production in Africa The worldâs potato production and consumption Potatoesâ contribution to agriculture â¢ Potatoes are the single most important vegetable crop in South Africa (Food pricing monitoring committee (FPMC), 2003:158). xref No, Is the Subject Area "Farms" applicable to this article? Nucleic acid extracts from a total of 787 tomato samples and 182 weed samples from 15 species belonging to six botanical families (Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, and Solanaceae) were tested for crinivirus infection using multiplex RT-PCR to detect single or mixed infections of crinivirus species (ToCV, TICV, BPYV, and PYVV) that are known to infect solanaceous hosts. Subsequently, our findings suggest the likelihood of intraspecific reassortment, based on the inconsistencies associated with the position of the RNA-1 and RNA-2 segments of ToCV isolates from phylogenetic analysis (Figs 5 and 6). Although recombination events were not detected, phylogenetic studies showed inconsistencies in the grouping of RNA-1 and RNA-2 segments for some of the ToCV isolates analyzed in this study. South Korean isolates displayed the highest level of diversity and seem to show this trend more frequently than others (Figs 5 and 6). Total RNA (≥ 50 ng/μl) was extracted from a ToCV positive sample using a Quick-RNA MiniPrep kit (Zymo Research, USA) and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 Ultra-High-Throughput Sequencing System (Illumina Inc. USA) at the Agricultural Research Council Biotechnology Platform [ARC-BTP (Pretoria, South Africa)]. The non-enveloped filamentous particles usually have two modal lengths ( 650–850 and 700–900 nm ) and Spain ( KJ175084.! Or mixed infections of crinivirus species infecting tomato crops in tomato production areas in south africa and America... 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